Know Your Crypto Archives • SynQ

Category: Know Your Crypto




Elrond is a blockchain with unique architecture, employing a Secure Proof of Stake (SPoS) consensus for security and an Adaptive State Sharding scheme for high scalability. By offering an EVM compliant engine for smart contracts, the platform looks to ensure native interoperability to languages such as Rust, C/C++, C#, and Typescript. The team consist of individuals with backgrounds associated to Google, Microsoft and Intel and those were part of the NEM blockchain platform.

The project raised $3.2 million by selling 25% of the token supply in an exchange offering on Binance Launchpad in 2019. As the blockchain transitioned to it’s mainnet during July 2020, the total token supply was reduced from 20 billion to 20 million.

Secure Proof of stake is a method of consensus that combines eligibility through stake and rating with random validator selection, along with an optimal dimension for the consensus group. The BFT-like consensus protocol provides security through the randomization of nodes. Each node in the shard may determine the members of the consensus group at the beginning of a round. The aggregated signature from the last block is used as a randomization factor for this process. A weight factor of rating will be introduced to promote meritocracy among the nodes, in addition to the stakes of nodes in consideration. The Bellare and Neven multi-signature scheme will also reduce the number of communication rounds as part of the signing algorithm.

Fig. 10: Shuffling the nodes at the end of each epoch

Meanwhile, Adaptive State Sharding brings a 1000x improvement to the ecosystem by utilizing parallel transaction processing by combining all three sharding types (State, Transactions, and Network) into the network. Elrond can reportedly process up to 10,000 TPS with a 5-second latency.

Fig. 12: Network throughput measured in transactions per seconds with a global network speed of 8 MB/s

The Network Structure of Elrond consists of Shards, Metachain, and Nodes.

Shards are smaller partitions of the network and are used for scaling. Individual Shards processes a portion of the state of accounts, smart contracts, blockchain, and transaction processing in parallel with each other.

Metachain is the blockchain that runs in a specialized Shard. Its main purpose is to notarize and finalize the processed Shard block headers, facilitating Shard communication, storing and maintaining a registry of Validators, Epoch management, and processing Fisherman challenges, rewards, and penalty.

Nodes are computers, smartphones, or servers running the Elrond client and relaying messages between peers. Nodes can perform the roles of Validators, Observers, or Fisherman to provide different support levels to the network and earn proportional rewards.

Validators act like the typical stakers of a blockchain. They are nodes within the network that processes transactions and security using the consensus mechanism to earn fee rewards.

Observers are passive members of the network and act as record keepers. Full Observers maintains the complete history of the blockchain, and Light Observers are limited to 2 Epochs of blockchain history. EGLD tokens are not required for their participation, and likewise, they are not rewarded.

Fishermans are nodes that verify block validity after their proposal. Invalid blocks from malicious actors are challenged and removed. This role can also be filled by validators that are not part of the current consensus round, or by Observers.

Conceptualized in 2018, the project is nearing completion.


EGLD is currently trading at $7.74 with a circulating supply of 14 Million coins and a max supply of 20.4 Million coins. The current market cap is $3,936,269,055 USD.


Web3 – Polkadot / Kusama

Polkadot / Kusama



Polkadot is a blockchain platform that was founded in 2017 by Dr. Gavin Wood, co-founder of Ethereum. It is an open-sourced project with over 100 participating developers across multiple teams, assisted by institutions such as Inria Paris and ETH Zurich.

The platform was the result of Dr. Wood’s desire to support and advance the “Web 3.0” vision of a decentralized web. Along with the Web3 Foundation, the Polkadot whitepaper was published to address the lack of critical technology and the solution, interoperability.

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Para-chain and Relay Chain connections.

This is achieved through the concept of para-chains, in which multiple chains can communicate with a core main chain known as the relay-chain. Any blockchain platform that is compliant with the Polkadot Relay Chain API can be a para-chain. Others that aren’t natively compatible can be connected through “bridges”. Platforms can utilize the para-chain mechanic to run their own transactions and communicate with other chains through Polkadot. There is a support limit of 100 para-chain, and the slots will be auctioned off in un-permission candle auctions, one at any given time.

There are also para-threads, which are lower throughput, pay-as-you-go model para-chains.


Polkadot/Kusama Structure Overview

Validators are the stakers of the network and works to secure the Relay Chain by validating proofs from collators and participating in consensus with other validators in the network. Information within exchanged para-chain blocks are first verified, and Relay Chain blocks are produced based on validity statements from peers within the network. Validators are recompensed with block rewards, including transaction fees, in DOT. Non-compliance with the consensus algorithms will result in the removal of all of the offender’s staked tokens.

Polkadot natively supports Substrate, a modular framework that was developed by Parity Technology, to assist in the creation of blockchain products and is quickly becoming a standard in the industry. Any Substrate-based project can be supported as a para-chain, allowing for ease of adoption.

The project raised several hundred million dollars in their series of sales and ICO, which has provided the funds required to build and foster the development of the platform. The Web3 Foundation, Parity Technologies developers, and capital partners such as Polychain Capital will also be supporting the project. Polkadot’s platform officially launched on 26th May 2020, and its token listed soon after in August 2020.




Kusama is a cousin-chain of the Polkadot network, founded in 2019. Aptly dubbed as the canary-net, Kusama’s intended purpose is to serve as Polkadot’s experimental community research and development network. It is where developers and teams can test Polkadot functionalities such as runtime upgrades, on-chain governance, para-chains, para-threads, and etc. in a live environment.


Comparing the cousins.

Upgrades to the Polkadot platforms are also likely to be deployed to Kusama before the Polkadot mainnet. Kusama has a modified governance parameter with shorter time gaps between governance events, allowing faster growth.

As a parallel of Polkadot, Kusama is built using Substrate and uses nearly the same codebase as Polkadot. Both act as their own independent networks, but will be likely bridged together in the future for cross-network interoperability.


DOT is currently trading at $4.48, with a market cap of $3,936,269,055 USD. The current circulating supply is 877,680,090 DOT coins and the max. supply is not available. 

KSM is currently trading at $38.21 USD, with a market cap of $323,602,069 USD. The current circulating supply is 8,470,098 KSM coins and the max. supply is not available.

DEX – Ocean Protocol

Ocean Protocol V3


Ocean Protocol is a DEX platform whose goal is to empower data-ownership and decentralizing servers. It is a culmination of blockchain, data sharing framework, and ecosystem related services. Providers and consumers can utilize the platform to share, stake and trade data access whilst retaining transparency, traceability, and security for all stakeholders involved using datatokens.

A datatokens is an interoperable ERC20 that represents both the value and the access permission of a registered dataset which could be a copyrighted IP or encrypted data on a storage device. A user must send 1.0 datatoken to the data provider to acquire the license to use that dataset.

Datatokens can also be used as the interface that connects data assets with blockchain and DeFi tools via DeFi composability within Ocean. Each data service in Ocean Protocol will also be assigned its own data token and can be leveraged as their equivalent. For example, crypto wallets can become data wallets, crypto exchanges to data marketplaces, or DAOs as data co-ops. This interchangeability allows Ocean to act as an on-ramp & off-ramp for data assets across DeFi platforms.

“Ocean is an on-ramp for data into ERC20 datatoken data assets on Ethereum, and an off-ramp to consume data assets.”

The Ocean marketplace serves as an intermediary between data providers and consumers, and stores a record of registered data holders and consumer transactions. However, none of the registered data are kept on-chain. The platform only facilitates access links, and owners can upload and store their data behind their respective firewalls and encryption.

In this data economy, the $Ocean Token is the commodity that drives the platform, and is the default unit of exchange. This utility token is used to stake on data, governance, and trading. It can be earned through multiple means. Stakers are given a cut of the transition fees as a liquidity provider, sellers are given the majority of their sales revenue, or a user could build your own Ocean-based marketplace where they can earn a cut of every data asset sold on their own market.


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The $Ocean Token’s mechanics are based on a Web3 sustainability loop model.

As of October 27th, 2020, Ocean Protocol’s V3 platform went live. Which meant the Ocean Market has also exited beta and entered public access. The team has contracted security audits, and their architecture has also been updated as shown.


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Source: Ocean V3 Architecture Overview

Ocean Protocol has additionally announced an early-stage program for Web3 community integration and growth called Ocean Shipyard, which has set aside up to 20 million Ocean Token over the next 2 years to fund projects and teams interested in building on Ocean.


OCEAN is currently trading at $0.44 USD, with a market cap of $182,499,539. The current circulating supply is 414,026,837 out of a total supply of 613,099,141 $OCEAN


DeFi – Synthetix SNX [Update]



Synthetix, was formerly known as Havven, and was rebranded during November 2018 to better represent its growth. The project which has initially started as a payment network had grown to become an asset issuance Defi protocol with an active community governance system and is recognized as the leading derivative Defi with ~$563m TVL.



Within the platform, assets locked in a contract are collateralized using the Synthetix Network Token, SNX, to generate various synthetic assets such as sUSD, sAUD, sKRW, called Synths. Users will be able to convert between Synths directly with the smart contract, improving the liquidity of DEXes. Holders of SNX stakes are paid a pro-rata portion of the fees generated by Synthetix’s Exchange as an incentive for their contribution.

Additionally, token holders can participate in governing multiple variables of the ecosystem as a whole; at one point even uniting and voted on an improvement proposal even without the support of the Synthetix team after a community debate in the Synthetix Discord.

Source: Change proposed and implemented by the community for the Capella release.

Synths are currently backed by a 750% collateralization ratio, but this is subject to change depending on the platform’s community governance mechanisms in the future. To ensure Synths are backed by sufficient collateral to deal with large price shocks, stakers will be governed using a collateralization ratio, or C-Ratio. A staker’s C-Ratio is relative to the fluctuation of SNX and Synths, and a staker will be unable to claim fees with a ratio less than 750%. Ratio can be restored by minting or burning synths.

As of Oct 13, 2020, Synthetix entered a partnership with PowerPool, allowing the SNX token to become one of the first Power Index participants. Synthetix will contribute to the index composition, and integrate SNX’s governance system into PowerPool’s meta-governance. Currently, the governance is based on polling within the SNX Discord channel to signal community consensus, but the team is currently building a governance system based on SNX. This partnership will also open up new utilities and opportunities for SNX holders to multiply voting power across Defi protocols. Each holder can supply SNX into the Power Index to own SNX and earn CVP (the Power Index’s meta-governance token which can be used to vote in different Defi protocols using GTs pooled into the Power Index.) at the same time.


SNX is currently trading at $3.43, with a market cap of $358,394,515. The current circulating supply is 104,525,838 out of a total supply of 206,308,351 SNX.


DeFi – FTX Exchange

FTX Exchange


FTX is a crypto derivative exchange offering scalable futures, leveraged tokens and OTC trading for the DeFi market. The Hong Kong-based exchange was only launched in May 2019, but has grown to be one of the top five exchanges in traded volume and is quickly outpacing most competitors.

This growth could be attributed to the solid reputation the company has established for itself, even before its adoption of DeFi projects. As interests and competition in DeFi grew, FTX stood out from the competition due to their adaptability and innovation.

Alameda Research, the exchange’s primary market maker, is also a investor in the DeFi project, mStable, a stable assets swapping protocol. The company is also an active participant in the Defi ecosystem. Alameda has proposed and voted on several Compound governance proposals, in addition to playing a crucial role in enhancing the Balancer‘s protocol distribution mechanics.

FTX operates by tokenizing leveraged futures positions using a generated ERC20 token as representation, which can then be traded as a spot token. The token could additionally also be listed on other exchanges, allowing users to take on a leveraged position without personally managing the collateral themselves. But the appeal for users is the unique products available on FTX such as the MOVE indices, FTX leveraged tokens, or the Bitcoin Perpetual Futures.

The platform’s utility token is known as FTT, and holders receive additional benefits such as lowered FTX trading fees, OTC rebates, collateral for futures trading, and socialized gains from the insurance fund.

Source: The FTX Team is also developing the SERUM Exchange.

FTX Services are available globally, except in restricted countries such as the United States, Cuba, Crimea, Sevastopol, Iran, Syria, North Korea, Antigua or Barbuda.


FTT is currently trading at $3.45, with a marketcap of $329,344,002. The current circulating supply is 95,434,860 out of a total supply of 344,446,952 FTT.


DeFi – Uniswap



Without a reserve of capital, decentralized exchanges cannot be utilized to their full potential. Uniswap aims to provide this service by regulating token exchanges on the Ethereum chain using liquidity pools rather than traditional order books.

Liquidity providers who invested value into a pool will earn interests in proportion to their shares from the 0.3% trading fee that the pool generates. Anyone can contribute to an existing pool, or create a new one by supplying an equal value of both ETH and an ERC20 token. Funds can be deposited or withdrawn at any time.



The creator of the pool can set the exchange rate, which will be shifted through Uniswap’s “constant product market maker” mechanism for trading. When one side of the pair’s liquidity is reduced relative to the other, the price is automatically adjusted. This is designed to “create arbitrage opportunities, in order to encourage more trading”.


Uniswap does not have a native token, but each liquidity pair is represented by a unique, transferable ERC20 “pool” token which users can use to swap between ETH and any ERC20 token. These tokens are created when funds are deposited into the pool and represents user’s share of the pool’s total assets. When funds are reclaimed, the associated pool tokens are burned.



s01e03 – TAP Network’s Lin Dai in the Hot Seat!

Bitcoin selling down, Cardano fundamentals look strong, LINK is doing things, Nick Mancini sat down with Lin Dai from TAP Network, and more… on this week’s episode of Know Your Crypto!

s01e02 – Quantreq’s Alex Mascioli in the Hot Seat!

Enrique went to CIS, eToro partnered with TheTie, Nick Mancini sat down with Alex Mascioli from Quantreq, and more… on this week’s episode of Know Your Crypto!

[Pilot] – Featuring Cointelligence’s On Yavin

Welcome to the first of a few brand new shows from SynQ I/O! Know Your Crypto will introduce various players in the cryptocurrency market in the KYC:Hot Seat, discuss trending topics, and dip into what makes this space tick.